Cues and Questions Strategy ala Marzano

Students construct meaning by making connections between already known information with the new information that is being presented. Cues and questions at the beginning of a lesson allow students to make those connections and add them to the new learning experiences. Background knowledge, personal experiences and sometimes misconceptions can muddy the new learning. Providing rich cues to the learning will allow the students to reach for those "a-ha" moments. In addition to providing cues to the students, tiered questions also allows the student to make connections as the learning takes place.
  1. Cues and Questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.
  2. "Higher level" questions produce deeper learning than "lower level" questions.
  3. Waiting briefly before accepting responses has the effect of increasing the depth of student answers
  4. Questions are effective learning tools even when before a learning experience
  5. Advance organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.
  6. Higher level advance organizers produce learning than lower level advance organizers
  7. Advance organizers are most useful with information that is not well organized.
  8. Different types of advance organizers produce different results.

    Here are some strategies:

    images.jpgWeb/Concept Maps are one way to embed new knowledge. Some students think and process in an abstract way and this can assist them with this task.

note-taking-cornell-notes.gifCornell Notes are another good way to help students embed new information. Students have the opportunity to learn new information and then after they have completed collecting new ideas, they can summarize and make their own connections at the bottom of the page.

images4.jpgGraphic Organizers are a great way to establish higher level thinking. There are many Graphic Organizers to choose from. The most important part of the organizer is that the students have the opportunity to gather new information and then they can process their thinking to establish connections.

school.jpgWait time for questioning. Make sure that the students are allowed enough time to process their answers prior to answering questions. The Rule of Thumb is to wait to the count of 10 so that all of the students have the opportunity to process the question and formulate an answer.

expectations.jpgUsing rubrics can allow students to learn how to evaluate their thinking. Creating rubrics with the students is another way to have the students capture what they need to learn.